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Part Twelve:MERIDIANS AND COLLATERALS-THE PATHWAYS TO LINK THE WHOLE BODY (1)

第十二部分:经络-人体联络的通道 (1)

http://www.100md.com   2006-2-7
     The meridian-collateral theory is concerned with the physiological functions and the pathological changes of the meridian-collateral system, and their relationships with zang-fu organs. It is an important component of the theoretical system of TCM. And it is considered as a theoretical basis of all clinical subjects of TCM, especially that of acupuncture, moxibustion, tuina and qigong. Besides, it guides the clinical practice of other branches of TCM.

    经络理论是有关经络系统的生理功能和病理变化以及和脏腑之间关系的理论。它是中医理论系统的重要组成部分,被认为是所有中医临床学科特别是针灸、推拿和气功的理论基础。另外,它还指导其它分支学科的临床实践。

    The meridians and collaterals are pathways along which qi and blood circulate through the whole body. The meridians are the major trunks of the meridian-collateral system and run longitudinally within the body, while the collaterals are the branches of the meridians and are reticularly distributed over the whole body. Hence, the meridians and collaterals, connecting the zang-fu organs with extremities, the upper with the lower and the internal with ihe external portions of the body, make all the body's organs and tissues an organic whole.

    经络是气血循行全身的通道。经是经络系统的主干,纵行于人体,而络是经的分支,呈网状分布于全身。因此,经络沟通人体脏腑肢节,上下内外,使人体的脏腑组织成为一个有机整体。

    The Composition of the Meridian-Collateral System 经络系统的组成

    The meridian-collateral system consists of meridians and collaterals as well as their subsidiary parts. This system, internally, links the zang-fu organs and, externally, joins the tendons, museles and skin.

    经络系统由经和络互补而成。这个系统在内联络脏腑组织,在外沟通筋骨肌肤。

    The meridians are classified into three categories: the regular meridians and the extra meridians and the divergent meridians. There are twelve regular meridians, namely the three yin meridians as well as the three yang meridians of the hands and feet. They are known collectively as "the twelve regular meridians", which are the main passages for qi and blood circulation and start and terminate at given seats, run along fixed routes and meet indefinite orders. They are directly connected with the relevant zang-fu organs. The eight extra meridians are composed of Du,Ren, Chong, Dai, Yinqiao, Yangqiao, Yinwei and Yangwei meridians. They are interlated with the twelve regular meridians and perform the functions of dominating, connecting and adjusting the twelve regular meridians. And they are not directly related to the internal organs in addition, the twelve divergent meridians are the extensions of the twelve meridians. They originate from the limbs, run deeper into the zang-fu organs and emerge from the shallow neck.

    Their action is to enhance the Links between every pair of meridians exteriorly-interiorly related in the twelve meridians and complement the organs and bodily areas to which the regular meridians can not get.

    经可以分为三类:正经、奇经和经别。有十二正经即手足三阴三阳经。它们被总称为“十二正经”,是气血循行的主要通道,有固定的起止点,按照一定的路径循行并按一定顺序交接。它们与相对应的脏腑直接相连。奇经八脉由督、任、冲、带、阴蹻、阳蹻、阴维和阳维脉组成 。它们与十二正经相互联系,并行使控制、联系和调节十二正经的功能。另外,它们不与脏腑直接相关。十二经别是十二正经的延续。它们起于四肢,深入脏腑,浅出于项部。它们的作用是加强十二正经表里两经的联系,并补充十二正经所不能到达的脏腑和身体区域。

    The collaterals are the branches of the meridians. They are divided into three groups: the divergent collaterals, superficial collaterals and tertiary collaterals. The divergent collaterals are the larger and main collaterals. The divergent collaterals originate from the twelve meridians as well as Du and Ren meridians respectively. Together with a large splenic collateral, they are altogether "fifteen divergent collaterals". Their chief task is to strengthen the links between every pair of meridians exteriorly-interiorly related on the body surface. The superficial collaterals are ones that run through the surface layer of the human body, and often emerge on the surface. And the tertiary collaterals refer to the smallest and the thinnest ones of the whole body.

    络是经的分支,可分为三类:别络、浮络和孙络。起源于十二正经和任督二脉的别络和脾之大络统称为“十五别络”。它们的作用是加强表里两经在体表上的联系。浮络循行于人体的表层并常出于体表。孙络是整个人体中最细小的络脉。

    In addition, there are the subsidiary parts of the meridian system, including the twelve skin zones and twelve musculature zones. Therefore, they are the parts that connect the twelve meridians with the

    superficial portions and the muscular portions of the body respectively. Considering the important place of the twelve meridians and the eight extra meridians in the meridian-collateral system. we are going to take them as the main subject for discussion.

    此外,尚有经络系统的附属部分包括十二皮部和十二经筋。因此,它们是分别连接人体浅表和肌肉的部分。考虑到十二正经和奇经八脉是经络系统的重要组成部分,我们将以其为主题进行讨论。

    Tab. 2 The Nomenclature and Classification of the Twelve Meridians 表2.十二正经的命名和归类

    Tab.2 shows that every meridian consists of three parts. 表2说明了每条经都由三部分组成。

    1 ) Hand or foot:

    (1)手或足

    The meridians starting or terminating at the hand are named "Hand", while those starting or terminating at the foot are named "Foot". So the twelve meridians are divided into four groups: three yin meridians of hand, three yang meridians of hand, three yin meridians of foot, and three yang-meridians of foot. Each of the meridian is named according to the medial or the lateral aspect of hand or foot, the names to which zang and fu pertain, and the nature of yin or yang.

    经脉起于或止于手者命名为“手”,起于或止于足者命名为“足”。所以,十二正经可分为四组:手三阴经,手三阳经,足三阴经,足三阳经。每条经都是根据其所在手足的内外面的位置、脏腑归属和阴阳性质命名的。

    2 ) Yin or yang:

    (2)阴或阳

    The meridians going in the medial aspect of the limbs are named "yin", whereas those in the lateral aspects are named "yang". The medial aspect of the limbs is subdivided into the anterior border, midline and the posterior border. And the yin meridians running through these parts are named Taiyin,Jueyin and Shaoyin respectively. The lateral surface of the limbs is also subdivided into the anterior border, the midline and the posterior border. And yang meridians are termed "Yangming","Shaoyang", and "Taiyang".

    循行于四肢内侧的经脉命名为“阴”,而循行于外侧者为“阳”。四肢内侧又可分为前、中、后三部,阴经循行于该部分的分别称为太阴、厥阴和少阴。四肢外侧同样可以分为前、中、后三部。阳经循于此者分别为阳明、少阳和太阳。

    3) Zang or fu:

    (3)脏或腑

    The nomenclature of zang or fu is determined in the light of the nature to which zang or fu pertains. For example, the meridian pertaining to the kidney is named the kidney meridian, and the rest may be deduced by analogy.

    脏或腑的命名是根据脏或腑的归属决定的。例如,属于肾的经脉命名为肾经,其余由此类推。

    To sum up, it is quite evident that there is no name that does not involve hand or foot, yin or yang, zang-organ or fu-organ in the twelve meridian.(To Be Continued)

    总之,很显然十二正经中没有不以手足、阴阳、脏腑命名的。

 
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