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Part Ten:BLOOD AND BODY FLUID-THE MATERIAL BASIS OF LIFE ACTIVITIES

第十部分:血、津液-人体生命活动的物质基础

http://www.100md.com   2006-2-7
     Blood, circulating in the vessels, is a red liquid substance rich in nutrients. It is one of the indispensable substances that constitute the human body and maintain its life activities. Blood originates from cereal essence transformed by the spleen and stomach, and has the functions of nourishing and moistening the whole body.

    血液行于脉管之中,是一种富含营养的红色液体物质。它是构成人体和维持生命活动不可缺少的物质。血源于脾胃化生的水谷精微,具有营养和滋润全身的功能。

    Nutritive qi and body fluid are thought of as the material basis of blood formation. As both of them derive from cereal essence, the quality of the food intake and the conditions of the spleen and the stomach are bound to have a direct bearing on blood formation. Either a long-term malnutrition or a lasting hypofunction of the spleen and stomach may cause insufficient blood formation, resulting in blood deficiency. That's why TCM states" Reinforcing the spleen and the stomach enables blood to develop spontaneously."

    营气和津液被认为是形成血液的物质基础。因为它们都来自水谷精微,所以摄入饮食的质量和脾胃的状态与血液的形成直接相关。无论是长期的营养不良或脾胃损伤都会使血液产生不足,导致血虚。这就是为什么中医认为“补脾肾,血自生”。

    Normal blood circulation comes of the joint action of the heart, the lung, the spleen and the liver. The heart-qi is the fundamental motive power to propel blood circulation. The lung is in charge of qi of the whole body and, therefore, has an important bearing on the formation of zong qi. When zong qi gets in the heart meridian, it may promote the movement of qi and blood. The spleen may keep blood flowing within the vessels and prevent it from extravasating. And the liver, besides its function of storing blood, adjusts the volume of blood flow and maintain the normal flow of qi and blood. In case any one of the above organs fails to work properly, abnormal blood circulation is certain to occur. The heart-qi deficiency, for instance, may lead to heart-blood stagnation. The spleen-qi deficiency fails to control blood, leading to bleeding, etc. The disturbance of qi flow of the liver and blood circulation may bring about such pathological changes as blood stasis or swelling, abnormal menstruation, dysmenorrhea or amenorrhea in women.

    正常的血液循行来自于心、肺、脾和肝的共同作用。心气是推动血液循行的原动力。肺主司一身之气,因此,与宗气的形成有重要的关系。当宗气注入心经便可以促进气血的运行。脾使血液流于脉管之中,防止其外溢。肝除了有储藏血液的功能外,还可以调节血量,维持气血的正常运行。如以上所说的任何一脏不能正常行使其功能的话,就会发生异常的血液循行。例如,心气不足可以导致心血凝滞;脾气不足无法收摄血液导致出血等;肝气不调、血液循行紊乱则会出现血瘀、血肿、女性月经不调、痛经、或闭经。

    Blood circulates within the vessels, by which it is carried to the zang-fu organs internally and to the skin, muscles, tendons and bones externally. It circulates ceaselessly Like a ring without end to nourish and moisten all the organs and tissues. In this, normal physiological activities are maintained. Basic Questions says:"The liver with blood is able to ensure normal vision. the feet with blood are able to walk. the palms with blood are able to grip things, the fingers with blood are able to grasp". "When discussing the relationship between blood and the tendons, the bones and the joints, Miraculous Pivot points out:"When blood is normal, the tendons and the bones are strong and the joints are nimble." Thus, it can be seen that the sensation the the movement of the body never for a moment deviate from the nutrients provided by blood.

    血在血管中循行,内至脏腑,外达皮肉筋骨,如环无端,运行不息,营养滋润所有脏腑组织。这样,正常的生理活动才得以维持。《素问》云:“肝受血而能视,足受血而能步,掌受血而能握,指受血而能摄。”对于血和髓、骨节之间关系的探讨,《灵枢》指出:“血常则髓骨坚,骨节敏。”故此,足见人体之感觉、运动均不能须臾离开血液提供的营养。

    Blood is also the material basis of mental activities. Sound mental activity results from normal circulation and a sufficient supply of blood. So any blood trouble, whatever the causes maybe, will bring about symptoms of mental activities varying in degrees. Basic Questions advises people: " Qi and blood are the foundation for human mental activities and have to be nursed with caution." And Miraculous Pivot informs us, " Harmonious blood vessels ensure a vigorous spirit." These famous remarks show the close relationship between blood and mental activities. Deficiency of blood, therefore, will cause mental disorder. For example, heart-blood or liver-blood deficiency will lead to such symptoms as palpitation, insomnia and dreaminess.

    血液也是精神活动的物质基础。健全的精神活动来自于正常的血液循行及充足的血液供应。所以不论什么原因导致的血液问题都会引起不同程度上的精神症状。《素问》建议:“气血者,人之神,不可不慎养。”《灵枢》则提醒我们:“血脉安,精神乃治。”这些著名的鉴言都体现了血和精神活动之间的密切关系。因此,血虚会导致精神错乱。例如,心血或肝血不足会导致心悸、失眠和多梦的症状。

    Body fluid is called jinye in TCM, including all kinds of fluids in the organs and tissues and their secretions, such as gastricjuice, intestinal juice, nasal discharge, tears, sweat, urine and so on. Just like qi and blood, body fluid is also one of the essential substances constituting the human body and maintaining its life

    体液在中医称为津液,包括存在于脏腑组织和它们之间间隙的各种液体如胆汁、肠液、鼻涕、眼泪、汗液、尿液等等。与气血一样,津液也是构成人体和维持生命活动的必要物质之一。

    jin and ye are always mentioned in the same breath because of the fact that, for one thing, both of them derive from food and water transported and transformed by the spleen and stomach. and for another, they can transform into each other. But they are actually different in thickness, property, function and distribution. By and large, jin is the fluid which is clear and thin and flows easily. It is distributed in the skin, muscles and orifices, furthermore, it permeates the blood vessels to keep them moistened. Ye, on the contrary, is thick fluid with flowing less easily. It is distributed in the joints, brain, marrow and internal organs to nourish them. Jin and ye may transform into each other. These two fluids are hard to be separated completely and, for this reason, they are jointly referred to as "jinye" (body fluid) . In case of the impairment of jin or exhaustion of ye, the two must be identified in TDS.

    津与液总是相提并论,因为一方面,它们都来源于脾胃化生的水谷精微;另一方面是由于它们可以互相转化。但是,实际上它们在稀薄、性状、功能和分布上是不同的。总的来说,津是一种清、稀、易于流动的液体。它分布于肌肤官窍,可以进一步渗透到脉管使其保持湿润。相反,液是一种质稠、不易流动的液体。它分布于关节、脑髓和内脏,使其得到滋养。津和液可以互相转化。这两种液体很难完全区分,因此,它们合称“津液”。在津或液的枯竭上,两种必须辨证的区分。

    The formation, distribution and excretion of body fluid are the complex physiological process in which they are accomplished by the joint action of many organs. As is pointed out in Basic Questions : "After food and drink enter the stomach, they are digested and transformed into food essence and then, transmitted upward to the spleen, which disperses the essence upward to the lung and the lung regulates water pathways downward to the urinary bladder. And by doing so body fluid is finally disseminated to all parts of the body along all the meridians and collaterals. " This description suggests that, 1) body fluid is formed from food and water by digestion and absorption of the stomach, separating the clarity from the turbidity of the small intestine and tramformation of the spleen; 2) the distribution and excretion of body fluid are accomplished by the joint action of many zang-fu organ, such as the transforming function of the spleen, the dispersing and descending function of the lung, the steaming and ascending function of the kidney; and 3) body fluid takes triple energizer as its passageway for distribution and excretion.

    津液的形成、分布和排泄是一个由许多脏腑组织共同完成的复杂过程。正如《素问》所指出的:“饮入于胃,游溢精气,上输于脾,脾气散精,上归于肺,通调水道,下输膀胱,水精四布,五经并行。”这段描述提示了:(1)津液由胃中消化吸收、小肠进行分清别浊、脾运化的水谷中形成。(2)津液的分布和排泄由许多脏腑组织共同完成,如脾的运化功能、肺的宣发肃降功能、肾的蒸发沉降功能。(3)津液以三焦为通道进行分布和排泄。

    Body fluid bears two physiological functions: moistening and nourishing:body fluid distributed to the body surface moistens and nourishes the muscles and skin with hairs; body fluid permeated through the body orifices moistens and protects the eyes, nose,mouth and other openings; body fluid infiltrated into the blood vessels nourishes and smooths them and is also the basic component of blood; body fluid poured into the internal organs nourishes and moistens them, and body fluid in the bone nourishes and moistens the bone marrow, spinal cord and brain marrow.

    津液有两种生理功能:滋润和营养。津液分布于肌表滋养肌肤毛发;渗透于体窍滋润和保护眼、鼻、嘴和其它官窍;津液渗透至脉管起到营养和滑利的作用,也是血液的基本组成成分;津液注入内脏使其得到滋养;骨中的津液对骨髓、脊髓和脑髓起到滋养作用。

 
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