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Part Eight: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ZANG-AND FU-ORGANS

第八部分: 脏腑器官的相互关系

http://www.100md.com   2006-2-7
     While the relationship among the zang-fu organs is quite a complicated matter--so much so that (so such an extent that )it deserves to be devoped a lot of pages, yet, thanks to TCM's concise and brilliant summarization, it may just as well be briefed in a broad outline. In TCM, the zang organs pertain to yin and are thought of as interior, while the fu-organs to yang and, naturally enough, as exterior. The interior-exterior relationship between them is formed by the connections of their meridians. This relationship as well as their physiological cooperation and pathological interaction can be clearly seen in the interrelations between the heart and the small intestine, the lung and the large intestine,the spleen and the stomach, the liver and the gallbladder and the kidney and the urinary bladder.

    尽管五脏与六腑之关系如此之复杂,需要大量篇幅加以论述;但由于中医学精辟的概括性,这种关系仍可以简要概述如下。中医认为,脏属阴、属里,而腑则属阳、属表。它们之间的表里关系以经脉相连。它们的这种关系及其之间在生理上的协调和病理上的相互影响可以清楚的体现于心和小肠、肺和大肠、脾和胃、肝和胆及肾和膀胱之间的相互关系中。

    The heart and the small intestine are connected by the heart meridian and the small intestine meridian to form an exterior-interior relationship. Thus making the two pathologically related to each other. The excessive heart-fire tends to go into the small intestine resulitng in oliguria, burning pains during urination,etc. Conversely, the excessive heat in the small intestine may go upward along the meridian to the heart and cause internal hyperactivity of heart-fire. Leading to dysphoria, crimson tongue, oral ulceration and so on.

    心和小肠由心经和小肠经相连形成表里关系。因此,也使它们在病理上互相关联。心有实火,可移热于小肠,引起尿少,尿痛等症。反之,小肠有热,亦可循经上炎于心,使心火内炽,引起心烦,舌赤,口舌生疮等症。

    The lung and the large intestine form an exterior-interior relationship by mutual connections of their meridians. The dispersing and deseending functions of the lung help the large intestine to perform its transporting task. When the lung functions normally, the large intestine does well. Conversely when the descending function of the lung qi do not work well, it will affect the functionof the large intestine in transportation, causing difficult bowel movements. On the other hand, loose stools and the stoppage of fu-qi may affect the descent of lung-qi, giving rise to asthmatic cough and chest distress.

    肺和大肠通过它们的经脉相互联系形成表里关系。肺的宣发和肃降功能助大肠完成传输的任务。肺的功能正常则大肠的功能也正常。相反,当肺的肃降功能异常时,大肠的传化功能将会受到影响,使肠运动困难。另一方面,便溏和腑气郁滞可以影响肺气的肃降造成喘咳和胸闷。

    Both the stomach and the spleen lie in the middle energizerand are connected by their meridians to form an exterior-interior relationship. The stomach governs the reception, while the spleen governs the transportation and transformation. The relationship between the two is that "the spleen conveys the booy fluid for the stomach". If pathogenic damp attacks the spleen, it will injure the transporting and transforming functions of the spleen and affect the reception and the descending action of the stomach, resulting in poor appetite, vomiting, nausea and gastric distention. So the spleen and the stomach share out the work and cooperate with each other to jointly accomplish the task of the digestion, absorption and distribution of food. On the contrary, intemperance of food intake (improper diet)and dyspeptic retention of the stomach will bring about both the dysfunction of the stomach in descent but that of the spleen's transportation and transformation, causing such symptoms as abdominal distention, diarrhea.

    脾胃位于中焦,通过它们的经脉相连形成表里关系。胃主受纳,脾主运化。两者的关系为“脾为胃传其津液”。湿邪犯脾时,脾的运化功能受损会影响胃的受纳和沉降,导致纳呆、呕吐、恶心和气滞。因此,脾胃共同协调完成饮食的消化、吸收和散布任务。相反,饮食不节、食滞于胃不仅会影响胃的沉降功能,脾的运化功能也会受到影响,产生腹胀、腹泻的症状。

    The gallbladder is attached to the liver, and they are connected by their meridians to form an exterior-interior relationship. Bile derives from surplus qi of the liver. It is stored and excreted by the gallbladder located under the liver. Only when the liver performs its function successfully can bile be secreted, stored and excreted normally. On the other hand, when bile is excreted properly, the liver can give full play to its function in regulating the normal flow of qi. Conversely, when bile fails to be excreted normally, the liver function will be affected, too. Therefore, the liver and gallbladder are closely related physiologically and pathologically. The diseases of liver often involve the gallbladder and the contrary is also true. Therefore, the liver and gallbladder cannot be completely separated physiologically and pathologically. For example, excessive fire of both the liver and the gallbladder may present such symptoms as qi-stagnation and heat-dampness.

    肝胆相连,它们通过经脉形成表里关系。胆汁来自于过剩的肝气。它储藏、排泄自位于肝下的胆。只有肝的功能正常,胆汁的分泌、储藏和排泄才能正常。另一方面,只有胆汁的排泄正常,肝才能充分执行其正常的理气功能。相反,当胆汁排泄异常时,肝的功能也会受影响。因此,肝胆在生理和病理上紧密联系。肝病通常影响及胆,反之亦然。因此,肝胆在生理和病理上不能完全分离。例如,肝胆实火都会出现气滞、湿热的症状。

    The kidney and urinary bladder, like the other zang-fu organs, form an exterior-interior relationship through their meridians. The kidneys control opening and closing, while the urinarybladder governs storing and excreting urine. Both are related to water metablism. Whether the function of the urinary bladder is normal or not depends on the sufficiency or deficiency of kidney-qi. When kidney-qi is sufficient and its astringency is right, the urinary bladder will open and close regularly, thus maintaining normal water metabolism. In case kidney-qi is deficient, there will be the disturbance of its qi transformation and astrictive action, causing the irregular opening and closing of the urinary bladder, manifested as dysuria, incontinence of urine, enuresis and frequency of micturition.

    肾和膀胱与其它的脏腑一样通过经脉形成表里关系。肾主开合,膀胱则是储藏和排泄尿液。两者都与水液代谢有关。膀胱的功能正常与否依赖肾气的充足与否。肾气充足,则固摄有权,膀胱开合有度,从而维持水液的正常代谢。如果,肾气不足,一方面可使肾气化无常,固摄无权,则膀胱开合失度,即可出现小便不利,失禁,遗尿,尿频等病症。

    So far the text has just briefly discussed the relationship between the five zang-and the six fu-organs. To have a thorough understanding of their interrelations and the zang-fu theory, it is also important to know the relationship between the five zang-organs and that between the six fu-organs as well, which, as space is limited, have to be reluctantly parted with here.

    至此,该篇已简要讨论了五脏六腑之间的关系。要想彻底理解它们的关系及脏腑理论,重要的是要了解五脏和六腑的关系,限于篇幅,这些关系只好于此割爱。

    In short, although the zang-and fu-organs have different physiological functions, there is a close relationship between them in maintaining the normal functions of the body, and it is the meridian-collateral system that makes them internally-externally interconnected. Without the interconnecting pathways of the meridians and collaterals, each of the zang-fu organs would become an isolated and static organ and unable to perform its functional activities. A case in point to show the relationship is what is said in Basic Questions . "The zang-organs are all connected with the meridians to perform the circulation of qi and blood."

    简而言之,虽然脏与腑的生理功能不同,但是它们之间的密切关系却维持了人体功能的正常,通过经络系统使它们形成了表里联系。没有经络这一联系通道,脏腑就会变得孤立静止,不能执行其功能活动。《素问》中说:“五脏之道,皆出于经遂,以行血气”。这便是一个表明这种关系的很好的例证。

 
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