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Efonidipine Hydrochloride:A Dual Blocker of L- and T-Type Ca2+ Channels

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     T-type Ca2+ channels have properties different from those of the L-type and are involved

    in cardiac pacemaking and regulation of blood flow, but not in myocardial contraction.

    Efonidipine is an antihypertensive and antianginal drug with dihydropyridine

    structure that was recently found to block both L- and T-type Ca2+ channels. In isolated

    myocardial and vascular preparations, efonidipine has potent negative chronotropic and

    vasodilator effects but only a weak negative inotropic effect. In experimental animals and

    patients, reduction of blood pressure by the drug was accompanied by no or minimum

    reflex tachycardia leading to improvement of myocardial oxygen balance and maintenance

    of cardiac output. Efonidipine increased glomerular filtration rate without increasing

    intraglomerular pressure. By relaxing both the afferent and efferent arterioles,efonidipine markedly reduced proteinuria. Thus, efonidipine, an L- and T-type dual Ca2+

    channel blocker, appears to have an ideal profile as an antihypertensive and antianginal

    drug with organ-protective effects in the heart and kidney.

 
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